| B | C
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| X | Y
trademarks are of their respective holders.
Megabit per second baseband Ethernet specification
using two paris of twisted-pair cabling (Category
3, 4 or 5): one pair for transmitting data and
the other for receiving data. 10BaseT has a distance
limit of approximately 100 meters per segment.
Mebabit per second baseband Fast Ehternet specification
using UTP wiring. Like the 10BaseT technology
on which it is based, 100BaseT sends link pulses
over the network segment when no traffic is present.
However, these link pulses contain more information
than those used in 10BaseT.
A record is part of the zone file. It is used
to point Internet traffic to an IP address. For
example, you can use an "A record" to designate
abc.yourdomain.com to send traffic to your web
site at IP address 22.214.171.124. You can also
designate xyz.yourdomain.com to go to a separate
Access® published by Microsoft is an easy to use
and highly integrated database creation and maintenance
software. Capable of online databases, the software
is supported with the NT® hosting platform.
Digital Subscriber Line) -- A method for moving
data over regular phone lines. An ADSL circuit
is much faster than a regular phone connection,
and the wires coming into the subscriber's premises
are the same (copper) wires used for regular phone
service. An ADSL circuit must be configured to
connect two specific locations, similar to a leased
A commonly discussed configuration of ADSL would
allow a subscriber to receive data (download)
at speeds of up to 1.544 Megabits per second,
and to send (upload) data at speeds of 128 kilobits
per second. Thus the 'Asymmetric' part of the
Another commonly discussed configuration would
be symmetrical: 384 kilobits per second in both
directions. In theory ADSL allows download speeds
of up to 9 megabits per second and upload speeds
of up to 640 kilobits per second.
ADSL is often discussed as an alternative to
ISDN, allowing higher speeds in cases
where the connection is always to the same place.
File Transfer Protocol allows the public to log
into an FTP server with a common login (usually
"ftp" or "anonymous" and any password (usually
the person's e-mail address is used as the password).
Anonymous FTP is benefitial for the distribution
of large files to the public, avoiding the need
to assign large numbers of login and password
combinations for FTP access.
small Java program that can be embedded
in an HTML page. Applets differ from full-fledged
Java applications in that they are not allowed
to access certain resources on the local computer,
such as files and serial devices (modems, printers,
etc.), and are prohibited from communicating with
most other computers across a network. The current
rule is that an applet can only make an Internet
connection to the computer from which the applet
tool (software) for finding files stored on anonymous
FTP sites. You need to know the exact file
name or a substring of it.
Research Projects Agency Network) -- The precursor
to the Internet. Landmark packet-switching
network established in 1969 by the US Department
of Defense as an experiment in wide-area-networking
that would survive a nuclear war.
- Active Server Pages (ASP). ASP files, which
provide Web developers with an easier, faster,
and more powerful way to build Web applications,
are regular HTML pages with embedded scripts.
These scripts can be written in any language and
processed by the server when the file's URL is
-- Asynchronous Transfer Mode. International sandard
for cell relay in which multiple service types
(such as voice, video, or data) are conveyed in
fixed-length (53-byte) cells. Fixed-length cells
allow cell processing to occur in hardware, thereby
reducing transit delays. ATM is designed to take
advantage of high-speed transmission media such
as E3, SONET, and T3.
Standard Code for Information Interchange) --
This is the de facto world-wide standard for the
code numbers used by computers to represent all
the upper and lower-case Latin letters, numbers,
punctuation, etc. There are 128 standard ASCII
codes each of which can be represented by a 7
digit binary number: 0000000 through 1111111,
high-speed line or series of connections that
forms a major pathway within a network. The term
is relative, as a backbone in a small network
will likely be much smaller than many non-backbone
lines in a large network.
difference between the highest and lowest frequencies
available for network signals. The term is also
used to describe the rated throughput capacity
of a given network medium or protocol. In short,
bandwidth is a loose term used to describe the
throughput capacity (measured in Kilobits or Megabits
per second) of a specific circuit.
of signaling speed equal to the number of discrete
signal elements transmited per second. Baud is
synonymous with bits per second (bps). In common
usage the baud rate of a modem is how many
bits it can send or receive per second.
Technically, baud is the number of times per second
that the carrier signal shifts value - for example
a 1200 bit-per-second modem actually runs at 300
baud, but it moves 4 bits per baud (4 x 300 =
1200 bits per second).
(Bulletin Board System)
computerized meeting and announcement system that
allows people to carry on discussions, upload
and download files, and make announcements without
the people being connected to the computer at
the same time. There are many thousands (millions?)
of BBS's around the world, most are very small,
running on a single IBM clone PC with 1 or 2 phone
lines. Some are very large and the line between
a BBS and a system like CompuServe gets crossed
at some point, but it is not clearly drawn.
HEXadecimal) -- A method for converting non-text
files (non-ASCII) into ASCII. This is needed
because Internet e-mail can only handle ASCII.
DigIT) -- A single digit number in base-2, in
other words, either a 1 or a zero. The smallest
unit of computerized data. Bandwidth is
usually measured in bits-per-second.
It's Time NETwork (or Because It's There NETwork))
-- A network of educational sites separate
from the Internet, but e-mail is freely exchanged
between BITNET and the Internet. Listservs,
the most popular form of e-mail discussion groups,
originated on BITNET. BITNET machines are usually
mainframes running the VMS operating system, and
the network is probably the only international
network that is shrinking.
-- A measurement of how fast data is moved from
one place to another. A 28.8 modem can
move 28,800 bits per second.
software that is used to look at various kinds
of Internet resources. Examples include Microsoft's
Internet Explorer and Netscape's Navigator.
The Way) -- A shorthand appended to a comment
written in an online forum.
set of Bits that represent a single character.
Usually there are 8 Bits in a Byte, sometimes
more, depending on how the measurement is being
made. See Also: Bit
issuer of Security Certificates used in
Gateway Interface) -- A set of rules that describe
how a Web Server communicates with
another piece of software on the same machine,
and how the other piece of software (the 'CGI
program') talks to the web server. Any piece of
software can be a CGI program if it handles input
and output according to the CGI standard.
Usually a CGI program is a small program that
takes data from a web server and does something
with it, like putting the content of a form
into an e-mail message, or turning the data
into a database query.
CGI "scripts" are just scripts which use CGI.
CGI is often confused with Perl, which is a
programming language, while CGI is an interface
to the server from a particular program. Perl
is an application of CGI, as well as MIVA, Python,
PHP3, and other scripting languages.
most common name of a directory on a web server
in which CGI programs are stored. The 'bin'
part of 'cgi-bin' is a shorthand version of 'binary',
because once upon a time, most programs were referred
to as 'binaries'. In real life, most programs
found in cgi-bin directories are text files --
scripts that are executed by binaries located
elsewhere on the server. While most programs using
CGI are stored in this directory, it is not a
requirement for using CGI.
software program that is used to contact and obtain
data from a server software program on another
computer, often across a great distance. Each
client program is designed to work with one or
more specific kinds of server programs, and each
server requires a specific kind of client. A web
browser and an FTP program are specific kinds
of clients. See Also: Browser,
Operations Centers such as CommuniTech.Net offer
the ability for customers to place their webservers
and other network equipment in thier NOC which
are connected via high speed fiber data lines
to the backbone of the Internet. Administration
is done remotely so that a customer far away can
configure and control their network equipment.
Fusion is a scripting language for web designers
that want wish to do advanced development and/or
database interfacing. Cold Fusion supports MS
Access, dBASE, FoxPro, and Paradox databases.
the case of many registries, contact information
for technical, billing and administrative purposes
are maintained in their database. It is important
to keep your contact records updated to ensure
that billing and renewal can proceed without problems.
most common meaning of 'Cookie' on the Internet
refers to a piece of information sent by a Web
Server to a Web Browser that the
Browser software is expected to save and to send
back to the Server whenever the browser makes
additional requests from the Server.
Depending on the type of Cookie used, and the
Browser's settings, the Browser may accept or
not accept the Cookie, and may save the Cookie
for either a short time or a long time.
Cookies might contain information such as login
or registration information, online 'shopping
cart' information, user preferences, etc.
When a Server receives a request from a Browser
that includes a Cookie, the Server is able to
use the information stored in the Cookie. For
example, the Server might customize what is
sent back to the user, or keep a log of particular
Cookies are usually set to expire after a predetermined
amount of time and are usually saved in memory
until the Browser software is closed down, at
which time they may be saved to disk if their
'expire time' has not been reached.
Cookies do not read your hard
drive and send your life story to the CIA, but
they can be used to gather more information
about a user than would be possible without
was originally a cultural sub-genre of science
fiction taking place in a not-so-distant, dystopian,
over-industrialized society. The term grew out
of the work of William Gibson and Bruce Sterling
and has evolved into a cultural label encompassing
many different kinds of human, machine, and punk
attitudes. It includes clothing and lifestyle
choices as well.
originated by author William Gibson in his novel
Neuromancer the word Cyberspace is currently
used to describe the whole range of information
resources available through computer networks.
Domain Naming System
DNS is a distributed, replicated that allows nameservers
to map easily remembered domain names to an IP
those customers that want the advantages of colocation
without the hassles of purchasing their own server.
digital version of literati, it is a reference
to a vague cloud of people seen to be knowledgeable,
hip, or otherwise in-the-know in regards to the
unique name that identifies an Internet site.
Domain Names always have 2 or more parts, separated
by dots. The part on the left is the most specific,
and the part on the right is the most general.
A given machine may have more than one Domain
Name but a given Domain Name points to only one
machine. For example, the domain names: communitech.net,
can all refer to the same machine, but each domain
name can refer to no more than one machine.
Usually, all of the machines on a given Network
will have the same thing as the right-hand portion
of their Domain Names in the examples above.
It is also possible for a Domain Name to exist
but not be connected to an actual machine. This
is often done so that a group or business can
have an Internet e-mail address without having
to establish a real Internet site. In these
cases, some real Internet machine must handle
the mail on behalf of the listed Domain Name.
Commerce. Refers to the general exchange of goods
and services via the Internet.
Mail) -- Messages, usually text, sent from one
person to another via computer. E-mail can also
be sent automatically to a large number of addresses
very common method of networking computers in
a LAN. Ethernet will handle about 10,000,000
bits-per-second and can be used with almost any
kind of computer.
Asked Questions) -- FAQs are documents that list
and answer the most common questions on a particular
subject. There are hundreds of FAQs on subjects
as diverse as Pet Grooming and Cryptography. FAQs
are usually written by people who have tired of
answering the same question over and over.
Distributed Data Interface) -- A standard for
transmitting data on optical fiber cables at a
rate of around 100,000,000 bits-per-second (10
times as fast as Ethernet, about twice
as fast as T-3). See Also: Bandwidth
, T-1 ,
Internet software tool for locating people on
other Internet sites. Finger is also sometimes
used to give access to non-personal information,
but the most common use is to see if a person
has an account at a particular Internet site.
Many sites do not allow incoming Finger requests,
but many do.
combination of hardware and software that separates
a LAN into two or more parts for security
flame meant to carry forth in a passionate manner
in the spirit of honorable debate. Flames most
often involved the use of flowery language and
flaming well was an art form. More recently flame
has come to refer to any kind of derogatory comment
no matter how witless or crude.
War When an online discussion degenerates
into a series of personal attacks against the
debaters, rather than discussion of their positions.
A heated exchange.
Microsoft® FrontPage® is a site creation and management
software tool. One of the most popular website
creation software packages the software, both
FrontPage® 98 and FrontPage ®2000 is widely supported
by the hosting community.
Transfer Protocol) -- A very common method of
moving files between two Internet sites. FTP is
a special way to login to another Internet
site for the purposes of retrieving and/or sending
files. There are many Internet sites that have
established publicly accessible repositories of
material that can be obtained using FTP, by logging
in using the account name anonymous, thus these
sites are called anonymous ftp servers.
technical meaning is a hardware or software set-up
that translates between two dissimilar protocols,
for example Prodigy has a gateway that translates
between its internal, proprietary e-mail format
and Internet e-mail format. Another, sloppier
meaning of gateway is to describe any mechanism
for providing access to another system, e.g. AOL
might be called a gateway to the Internet.
widely successful method of making menus of material
available over the Internet. Gopher is a Client
and Server style program, which requires
that the user have a Gopher Client program.
Although Gopher spread rapidly across the globe
in only a couple of years, it has been largely
supplanted by Hypertext, also known as WWW
(World Wide Web). There are still thousands
of Gopher Servers on the Internet and we
can expect they will remain for a while.
used in reference to the World Wide Web, 'hit'
means a single request from a web browser
for a single item from a web server; thus
in order for a web browser to display a page that
contains 3 graphics, 4 'hits' would occur at the
server: 1 for the HTML page, and one for
each of the 3 graphics.
'hits' are often used as a very rough measure
of load on a server, e.g. 'Our server has been
getting 300,000 hits per month.' Because each
'hit' can represent anything from a request
for a tiny document (or even a request for a
missing document) all the way to a request that
requires some significant extra processing (such
as a complex search request), the actual load
on a machine from 1 hit is almost impossible
Page (or Homepage)
meanings. Originally, the web page that
your browser is set to use when it starts
up. The more common meaning refers to the main
web page for a business, organization, person
or simply the main page out of a collection of
web pages, e.g. 'Check out so-and-so's new Home
Another sloppier use of the term refers to practically
any web page as a 'homepage,' e.g. 'That web
site has 65 homepages and none of them are interesting.'
computer on a network that is a repository
for services available to other computers on the
network. It is quite common to have one
host machine provide several services, such as
WWW and USENET.
term can be used to refer to the housing of a
web site, email or a domain. See Email hosting
and Web Site hosting for more details.
Markup Language) -- The coding language used to
create Hypertext documents for use on the
World Wide Web. HTML looks a lot like old-fashioned
typesetting code, where you surround a block of
text with codes that indicate how it should appear,
additionally, in HTML you can specify that a block
of text, or a word, is linked to another file
on the Internet. HTML files are meant to be viewed
using a World Wide Web Client Program,
such as Netscape or Mosaic.
Transport Protocol) -- The protocol for moving
hypertext files across the Internet.
Requires a HTTP client program on one end,
and an HTTP server program on the other
end. HTTP is the most important protocol used
in the World Wide Web (WWW).
any text that contains links to other documents
- words or phrases in the document that can be
chosen by a reader and which cause another document
to be retrieved and displayed.
My Humble Opinion) -- A shorthand appended to
a comment written in an online forum, IMHO indicates
that the writer is aware that they are expressing
a debatable view, probably on a subject already
under discussion. One of may such shorthands in
common use online, especially in discussion forums.
Server indexes the contents and properties of
documents on an Internet or intranet Web site
served by IIS 4.0. Index Server enables Web clients
with any browser to search a Web site by filling
in the fields of an HTML query form.
case I) The vast collection of inter-connected
networks that all use the TCP/IP protocols and
that evolved from the ARPANET of the late
60's and early 70's. The Internet now (July 1995)
connects roughly 60,000 independent networks into
a vast global internet.
case i) Any time you connect 2 or more networks
together, you have an internet - as in inter-national
(now known as Network Solutions) currently holds
an exclusive contract with the U.S. government
to assign domain names for .COM, .NET and .ORG.
The contract is scheduled to expire September
30, 1998. Network Solutions is the company that
runs the InterNIC registry.
private network inside a company or organization
that uses the same kinds of software that you
would find on the public Internet, but
that is only for internal use.
As the Internet has become more popular many
of the tools used on the Internet are being
used in private networks, for example, many
companies have web servers that are available
only to employees.
Note that an Intranet may not actually be an
-- it may simply be a network.
Protocol Number) -- Sometimes called a dotted
quad. A unique number consisting of 4 parts separated
by dots, e.g.126.96.36.199
Every machine that is on the Internet has a
unique IP number - if a machine does not have
an IP number, it is not really on the Internet.
Most machines also have one or more Domain
Names that are easier for people to remember.
Relay Chat) -- Basically a huge multi-user live
chat facility. There are a number of major IRC
servers around the world which are linked
to each other. Anyone can create a channel and
anything that anyone types in a given channel
is seen by all others in the channel. Private
channels can (and are) created for multi-person
Services Digital Network) -- Basically a way to
move more data over existing regular phone lines.
ISDN is rapidly becoming available to much of
the USA and in most markets it is priced very
comparably to standard analog phone circuits.
It can provide speeds of roughly 128,000 bits-per-second
over regular phone lines. In practice, most people
will be limited to 56,000 or 64,000 bits-per-second.
Service Provider) -- An institution that provides
access to the Internet in some form, usually for
is a network-oriented programming language invented
by Sun Microsystems that is specifically designed
for writing programs that can be safely downloaded
to your computer through the Internet and immediately
run without fear of viruses or other harm to your
computer or files. Using small Java programs (called
"Applets"), Web pages can include
functions such as animations, calculators, and
other fancy tricks.
We can expect to see a huge variety of features
added to the Web using Java, since you can write
a Java program to do almost anything a regular
computer program can do, and then include that
Java program in a Web page.
Development Kit) -- A software development package
from Sun Microsystems that implements the basic
set of tools needed to write, test and debug Java
applications and applets
thousand bytes. Actually, usually 1024 (210) bytes.
Area Network) -- A computer network limited to
the immediate area, usually the same building
or floor of a building.
to a phone line that is rented for exclusive 24-hour,
7 -days-a-week use from your location to another
location. The highest speed data connections require
a leased line.
most common kind of maillist, Listservs
originated on BITNET but they are now common
on the Internet.
TLDs require initial registration fees as well
as annual or bi-annual renewal fees. Prices vary
from cost-free to thousands of dollars per domain
depending on the TLD chosen. For example, .COM
domains cost which covers the first two years.
Re newal fees for .COM are annually after the
first two years expire.
or a verb. Noun: The account name used to gain
access to a computer system. Not a secret (contrast
with Password). Verb: The act of entering
into a computer system, e.g. Login to the WELL
and then go to the GBN conference.
Mailing List) A (usually automated) system
that allows people to send e-mail to one
address, whereupon their message is copied and
sent to all of the other subscribers to the maillist.
In this way, people who have many different kinds
of e-mail access can participate in discussions
million bytes. A thousand kilobytes.
Instrument Digital Interface -- A network and
accompanying protocol developed in the 1970's
for tranmitting various information between musical
and other devices including keyboards, samplers,
lights, controllers, etc.
Internet Mail Extensions) -- The standard for
attaching non-text files to standard Internet
mail messages. Non-text files include graphics,
spreadsheets, formatted word-processor documents,
sound files, etc.
An email program is said to be MIME Compliant
if it can both send and receive files using
the MIME standard.
When non-text files are sent using the MIME
standard they are converted (encoded) into text
- although the resulting text is not really
Generally speaking the MIME standard is a way
of specifying both the type of file being sent
(e.g. a QuicktimeÅ video file), and the
method that should be used to turn it back into
its original form.
Besides email software, the MIME standard is
also universally used by Web Servers
to identify the files they are sending to Web
Clients, in this way new file formats
can be accommodated simply by updating the Browsers'
list of pairs of MIME-Types and appropriate
software for handling each type.
speaking, 'to mirror' is to maintain an exact
copy of something. Probably the most common use
of the term on the Internet refers to 'mirror
sites' which are web sites, or FTP
sites that maintain exact copies of material originated
at another location, usually in order to provide
more widespread access to the resource.
Another common use of the term 'mirror' refers
to an arrangement where information is written
to more than one hard disk simultaneously, so
that if one disk fails, the computer keeps on
working without losing anything.
DEModulator) -- A device that you connect to your
computer and to a phone line, that allows the
computer to talk to other computers through the
phone system. Basically, modems do for computers
what a telephone does for humans.
database that the TLD registries maintain need
to be accurate in order for name resolution, billing,
renewal notices and public records to be processed
correctly. Typically modifications are required
when nameservers need to change or the contacts
change email or postal address or phone number.
The procedures for modifying records will depend
on the registry.
Object Oriented) -- One of several kinds of multi-user
role-playing environments, so far only text-based.
first WWW browser that was available for
the Macintosh, Windows, and UNIX all with the
same interface. Mosaic really started the popularity
of the Web. The source-code to Mosaic has been
licensed by several companies and there are several
other pieces of software as good or better than
Mosaic, most notably, Netscape.
Dungeon or Dimension) -- A (usually text-based)
multi-user simulation environment. Some are purely
for fun and flirting, others are used for serious
software development, or education purposes and
all that lies in between. A significant feature
of most MUDs is that users can create things that
stay after they leave and which other users can
interact with in their absence, thus allowing
a world to be built gradually and collectively.
Simulated Environment) -- One kind of MUD - usually
with little or no violence.
Record: Mail Exchange
Exchange record is part of the zone file and is
used to designate which mail server machine should
process email for a specific domain.
NT® is Microsoft's® 32-bit operating system developed
from what was originally intended to be OS/2 3.0
before Microsoft ®and IBM ceased joint development
of OS/2. Used by web hosting companies in the
network environment to offer customers support
for Microsoft base products such as MS Access®,
MS SQL® 7.0, and FrontPage® 2000.
computer that performs the mapping of easily remembered
domain names to IP addresses. Sometimes referred
to as a host server.
etiquette on the Internet. See Also: Internet
from the term citizen, referring to a citizen
of the Internet, or someone who uses networked
resources. The term connotes civic responsibility
and participation. See Also: Internet
WWW Browser and the name of a company.
The Netscape (tm) browser was originally based
on the Mosaic program developed at the
National Center for Supercomputing Applications
Netscape has grown in features rapidly and is
widely recognized as the best and most popular
web browser. Netscape corporation also produces
web server software.
Netscape provided major improvements in speed
and interface over other browsers, and has also
engendered debate by creating new elements for
the HTML language used by Web pages --
but the Netscape extensions to HTML are not
The main author of Netscape, Mark Andreessen,
was hired away from the NCSA by Jim Clark, and
they founded a company called Mosaic Communications
and soon changed the name to Netscape Communications
time you connect 2 or more computers together
so that they can share resources, you have a computer
network. Connect 2 or more networks together and
you have an internet.
name for discussion groups on USENET. See
Information Center) -- Generally, any office that
handles information for a network. The most famous
of these on the Internet is Network Solutions,
which is where new domain names are registered.
Another definition: NIC also refers to Network
Interface Card which plugs into a computer and
adapts the network interface to the appropriate
standard. ISA, PCI, and PCMCIA cards are all examples
News Transport Protocol) -- The protocol used
by client and server software to
carry USENET postings back and forth over
a TCP/IP network. If you are using
any of the more common software such as Netscape,
Nuntius, Internet Explorer, etc. to participate
in newsgroups then you are benefiting from
an NNTP connection.
single computer connected to a network.
to a circuit that transmits 155,000,000 bits per
second. This is the size of the largest Internet
backbone providers networks.
method used to move data around on the Internet.
In packet switching, all the data coming out of
a machine is broken up into chunks, each chunk
has the address of where it came from and where
it is going. This enables chunks of data from
many different sources to co-mingle on the same
lines, and be sorted and directed to different
routes by special machines along the way. This
way many people can use the same lines at the
require the use of name servers or hosts for every
domain registered. Parking is the process by which
someone selects a domain name, and "parks" it
by registering the domain name under someone's
name servers. Parking can be done by anyone, to
anyone else who has active name servers. However,
parking a domain name alone will result in no
service (webhosting, e-mail) for that particular
code used to gain access to a locked system. Good
passwords contain letters and non-letters and
are not simple combinations such as virtue7.
A good password might be: Hot-6
(usually small) piece of software that adds features
to a larger piece of software. Common examples
are plug-ins for the Netscape® browser
and web server. Adobe Photoshop® also
The idea behind plug-in's is that a small piece
of software is loaded into memory by the larger
program, adding a new feature, and that users
need only install the few plug-ins that they
need, out of a much larger pool of possibilities.
Plug-ins are usually developed by a third party.
of Presence, also Post Office Protocol) -- Two
commonly used meanings: Point of Presence and
Post Office Protocol. A Point of Presence usually
means a city or location where a network can be
connected to, often with dial up phone lines.
So if an Internet company says they will soon
have a POP in Belgrade, it means that they will
soon have a local phone number in Belgrade and/or
a place where leased lines can connect to their
network. A second meaning, Post Office Protocol
refers to the way e-mail software such as Eudora
gets mail from a mail server. When you obtain
a SLIP, PPP, or shell account you almost always
get a POP account with it, and it is this POP
account that you tell your e-mail software to
use to get your mail.
meanings. First and most generally, a place where
information goes into or out of a computer, or
both. E.g. the serial port on a personal computer
is where a modem would be connected.
On the Internet port often refers to a number
that is part of a URL, appearing after
a colon (:) right after the domain name.
Every service on an Internet server listens
on a particular port number on that server.
Most services have standard port numbers, e.g.
Web servers normally listen on port 80. Services
can also listen on non-standard ports, in which
case the port number must be specified in a
URL when accessing the server, so you might
see a URL of the form:
shows a gopher server running on a non-standard
port (the standard gopher port is 70). Finally,
port also refers to translating a piece of software
to bring it from one type of computer system
to another, e.g. to translate a Windows program
so that is will run on a Macintosh.
single message entered into a network communications
system. E.g. A single message posted to a newsgroup
or message board. See Also: Newsgroup
(Point to Point Protocol) -- Most well known
as a protocol that allows a computer to use
a regular telephone line and a modem
to make TCP/IP connections and thus be
really and truly on the Internet.
process whereby the nameservers throughout the
world have updated their records for a specific
domain. For example, if you move your domain from
one host to another, it will take around 24 hours
or so for the new address to broadcast everywhere.
During that 24 hour period, the traffic is decreasing
at the old location and increasing at the new
Switched Telephone Network) -- The regular old-fashioned
Audio / Real Video
Audio/Real Video enables users of personal computers
and other consumer electronic devices to send
and receive audio, video and other multimedia
services using the Web.
enable users of personal computers and other
consumer electronic devices to send and receive
audio, video and other multimedia services using
every domain is unique, registries have been set
up to assign domains to individuals and organziations.
When a domain is registered with the appropriate
registry, that domain is assigned and becomes
no longer available for anyone else to use. Typically,
there are registration and renewal fees (local
registry fees) associated with the right to use
a domain. However, there are some TLDs that are
provided at no charge.
entity, organization or individual that will be
using the domain name.
registries don't provide the ability for end users
to register domains with them directly. They might
require end users to purchase the domain through
an internet provider that is acting as the registrar.
organization responsible for assigning domain
names for the TLD that they manage. Furthermore,
it is their responsibility to update the global
DNS tables that all nameservers use to resolve
domain names. For example, InterNIC is the registry
for .COM, .NET and .ORG domain names.
TLDs need to be renewed at some scheduled yearly
interval. This is an opportunity for both the
registrant and the registry to update their records
as well as collect any applicable renewal fees.
conversion of an internet address or domain name
into the corresponding physical location.
For Comments) -- The name of the result and the
process for creating a standard on the Internet.
New standards are proposed and published on line,
as a Request For Comments. The Internet Engineering
Task Force is a consensus-building body that facilitates
discussion, and eventually a new standard is established,
but the reference number/name for the standard
retains the acronym RFC, e.g. the official standard
for e-mail is RFC 822.
special-purpose computer (or software package)
that handles the connection between 2 or more
networks. Routers spend all their time
looking at the destination addresses of the packets
passing through them and deciding which route
to send them on.
chunk of information (often stored as a text file)
that is used by the SSL protocol to establish
a secure connection.
Security Certificates contain information about
who it belongs to, who it was issued by, a unique
serial number or other unique identification,
valid dates, and an encrypted 'fingerprint'
that can be used to verify the contents of the
In order for an SSL connection to be created
both sides must have a valid Security Certificate.
computer, or a software package, that provides
a specific kind of service to client software
running on other computers. The term can refer
to a particular piece of software, such as a WWW
server, or to the machine on which the software
is running, e.g.Our mail server is down today,
that's why e-mail isn't getting out. A single
server machine could have several different server
software packages running on it, thus providing
many different servers to clients on the
produced by Macromedia, allows you to view new
forms of entertainment on the Web, such as games,
music, rich-media chat, interactive product demos,
and e-merchandising applications
Line Internet Protocol) -- A standard for using
a regular telephone line (a serial line) and a
modem to connect a computer as a real Internet
site. SLIP is gradually being replaced by PPP.
Multimegabit Data Service) -- A new standard for
very high-speed data transfer.
Mail Transport Protocol) -- The main protocol
used to send electronic mail on the Internet.
SMTP consists of a set of rules for how a program
sending mail and a program receiving mail should
Almost all Internet email is sent and received
by clients and servers using SMTP,
thus if one wanted to set up an email server
on the Internet one would look for email server
software that supports SMTP.
Network Management Protocol) -- A set of standards
for communication with devices connected to a
TCP/IP network. Examples of these devices
include routers, hubs, and switches.
A device is said to be 'SNMP compatible' if
it can be monitored and/or controlled using
SNMP messages. SNMP messages are known as 'PDU's'
- Protocol Data Units.
Devices that are SNMP compatible contain SNMP
'agent' software to receive, send, and act upon
Software for managing devices via SNMP are available
for every kind of commonly used computer and
are often bundled along with the device they
are designed to manage. Some SNMP software is
designed to handle a wide variety of devices.
inappropriate attempt to use a mailing list,
or USENET or other networked communications
facility as if it was a broadcast medium (which
it is not) by sending the same message to a large
number of people who didn't ask for it. The term
probably comes from a famous Monty Python skit
which featured the word spam repeated over and
over. The term may also have come from someone's
low opinion of the food product with the same
name, which is generally perceived as a generic
content-free waste of resources. (Spam is a registered
trademark of Hormel Corporation, for its processed
E.g. Mary spammed 50 USENET groups by posting
the same message to each.
Query Language) -- A specialized programming language
for sending queries to databases. Most industrial-strength
and many smaller database applications can be
addressed using SQL. Each specific application
will have its own version of SQL implementing
features unique to that application, but all SQL-capable
databases support a common subset of SQL.
Sockets Layer) -- A protocol designed by Netscape
Communications to enable encrypted, authenticated
communications across the Internet.
SSL used mostly (but not exclusively) in communications
between web browsers and web servers.
URL's that begin with 'https' indicate
that an SSL connection will be used.
SSL provides 3 important things: Privacy, Authentication,
and Message Integrity.
In an SSL connection each side of the connection
must have a Security Certificate, which
each side's software sends to the other. Each
side then encrypts what it sends using information
from both its own and the other side's Certificate,
ensuring that only the intended recipient can
de-crypt it, and that the other side can be
sure the data came from the place it claims
to have come from, and that the message has
not been tampered with.
Operator) -- Anyone responsible for the physical
operations of a computer system or network resource.
A System Administrator decides how often backups
and maintenance should be performed and the System
Operator performs those tasks.
leased-line connection capable of carrying
data at 1,544,000 bits-per-second. At maximum
theoretical capacity, a T-1 line could move a
megabyte in less than 10 seconds. That
is still not fast enough for full-screen, full-motion
video, for which you need at least 10,000,000
bits-per-second. T-1 is the fastest speed commonly
used to connect networks to the Internet.
leased-line connection capable of carrying
data at 44,736,000 bits-per-second. This is more
than enough to do full-screen, full-motion video.
Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) -- This is
the suite of protocols that defines the Internet.
Originally designed for the UNIX operating
system, TCP/IP software is now available for every
major kind of computer operating system. To be
truly on the Internet, your computer must
have TCP/IP software.
command and program used to login from
one Internet site to another. The telnet
command/program gets you to the login: prompt
of another host.
device that allows you to send commands to a computer
somewhere else. At a minimum, this usually means
a keyboard and a display screen and some simple
circuitry. Usually you will use terminal software
in a personal computer - the software pretends
to be (emulates) a physical terminal and allows
you to type commands to a computer somewhere else.
special purpose computer that has places to plug
in many modems on one side, and a connection
to a LAN or host machine on the
other side. Thus the terminal server does the
work of answering the calls and passes the connections
on to the appropriate node. Most terminal
servers can provide PPP or SLIP
services if connected to the Internet.
Level Domain: (TLD)
Top Level Domain (TLD) is the uppermost in the
hierarchy of domain names. For example, communitech.net
is our domain name. The "net" is considered
the TLD and the "communitech.net" is
considered the second level domain. Together they
form a domain name which is unique. There are
two types of TLDs. The most common type is the
Generic or Global TLDs which include .COM, .NET,
.ORG, .MIL, .INT and .EDU. There is a possibility
that new gTLDs will be introduced in the near
future. National or ccTLDs are two letter country
code domains that are managed by a registry designated
and controlled by each specific country. Each
registry might have differing prices, residency
requirements and structure.
it relates to domain names... a word, phrase or
slogan used to identify and distinguish the source
of the goods or services. Trademark law may be
different worldwide. If someone registers a domain
name such as microsoft.to then Microsoft would
need to go to the courts in Tonga to fight to
get the name back. Expensive international litigation
is one reason why it is important to protect your
trademarks before someone else registers the names.
occasion, domains are sold to another organization
or sometimes the name of a company might change.
Most registries require a letter of permission
from the old owner to hand over control to the
new owner. The procedures for Transfer of ownership
will depend on the registry.
Ta For Now) -- A shorthand appended to a comment
written in an online forum. See Also: IMHO
computer operating system (the basic software
running on a computer, underneath things like
word processors and spreadsheets). UNIX is designed
to be used by many people at the same time (it
is multi-user) and has TCP/IP built-in.
It is the most common operating system for servers
on the Internet.
Resource Locator) -- The standard way to give
the address of any resource on the Internet that
is part of the World Wide Web (WWW). A URL looks
like this: http://www.communitech.net/glossary/
or telnet://anywhere.you.want or news:new.newusers.questions
The most common way to use a URL is to enter
into a WWW browser program, such as Netscape,
world-wide system of discussion groups, with comments
passed among hundreds of thousands of machines.
Not all USENET machines are on the Internet,
maybe half. USENET is completely decentralized,
with over 10,000 discussion areas, called newsgroups.
See Also: Newsgroup
to Unix Encoding) -- A method for converting files
from Binary to ASCII (text) so that
they can be sent across the Internet via e-mail.
Easy Rodent Oriented Net-wide Index to Computerized
Archives) -- Developed at the University of Nevada,
Veronica is a constantly updated database of the
names of almost every menu item on thousands of
gopher servers. The Veronica database can
be searched from most major gopher menus.
See Also: Gopher
Microsoft® Visual Basic® programming language,
is a fast, portable, lightweight interpreter for
use in World Wide Web browsers and other applications
that use Microsoft® ActiveX® Controls, Automation
servers, and Java applets Souce: http://msdn.microsoft.com/scripting/default.htm
Area Information Servers) -- A commercial software
package that allows the indexing of huge quantities
of information, and then making those indices
searchable across networks such as the
Internet. A prominent feature of WAIS is
that the search results are ranked (scored) according
to how relevant the hits are, and that subsequent
searches can find more stuff like that last batch
and thus refine the search process.
Area Network) -- Any internet or network
that covers an area larger than a single building
registries maintain a database of domain names
and their associated contact information. Users
can query these databases through a program called
Wide Web) -- Two meanings - First, loosely used:
the whole constellation of resources that can
be accessed using Gopher, FTP, HTTP, telnet,
USENET, WAIS and some other tools. Second,
the universe of hypertext servers (HTTP servers)
which are the servers that allow text, graphics,
sound files, etc. to be mixed together.
group of files that reside on the domain host
or nameserver. The zone file designates a domain,
its subdomains and mail server.